As numerous articles on fascism have noted, the generalization of such a complex concept is dangerous as it brings to a simplification of events and the misunderstanding of the concept itself. So, in the context of views on homosexuality in the fascist contexts, it is important to do the same, and not generalize the experiences of all homosexuals. Explored in this weeks readings were the use of concepts of gender and sexuality to define agency and use of these in fascist realities in the 30s and 40s. Shown in two articles, that of Marhoefer and Healy, it is interesting that lesbianism, as opposed to male homosexual relations, was not a criminal offence during the soviet regime and the nazi regime. It is revealing of ideology in the fascist states. Some scholars argue it was not seen as a threat to the political regime.
It is then interesting to answer this question by looking at the concept of masculinity. As shown in Kühne’s article, it was important for fascist ideology to portray hard “masculinity” and use it for social order and control. The fact that there was a great pressure on men to constantly prove and portray their masculinity shows that there was a need for aggressiveness, order and militarization in the Nazi regime. Male homosexuality then was a threat to order and the political system, or more concretely the ideology of fascist states which could sometimes be seen as fragile, just like masculinity was. There seemed to be no such emphasis on the femininity of women as a an integral force leading to social order and respect of the political system.
The fact that men were seen as dominant and as having control over women was probably the reason that lesbians or gender nonconformity within the female population was not as concerning as male gender nonconformity. Surely, the difference between the treatment of gays and lesbians does not exclude the possibility of maltreatment for lesbians. It simply shows the priority of the state, especially in nazi Germany concerning the role of gender in the implementation of ideology. Thus, masculinity as a concept in fascist states, such as Nazi Germany can be used to explain the difference between the criminality of gays and lesbians as well as understanding the ways in which the population was coerced and forced to conform to such a political regime through socially constructed pressure for men to be perceived as masculine or “real men”.