What was evident in the linear narrative of human history is there is always a social, or political version of Newton’s third law of thermodynamics, which states “for every action, there is an equal and opposing reaction”. Mussolini was masterful at using this cause-and-effect to shape Italy’s social policies. This includes, however is not limited to, massive military spending, the development of a massive existential threat to the state, suppression of legal liberalism and core rights. Consequentially, Mussolini would provide others a working model of fascism which would be adapted to the unique cultural, political, and economic challenges of their respective nation states.
Mussolini and his political philosophies were in response to economic, human, moral, and national destruction following the end of the First World War. During the 1920’s and 1930’s England and France had the near impossible task of rebuilding themselves due to being devastated by shortages of manpower, stagnate economies, and were experiencing hyperinflation; resulting from territorial incorporation of Ottoman and other nation states/empires that had be disassembled following the treaty of Versailles.
In response to all this, there was massive political unrest, demonstrations, and worker strikes which paralyzed economies, and perpetuated ongoing systemic poverty that is inherent to the democratic-capitalist system of government and economics. With poverty, and massive political unrest, the democracies of England, France, and the United States must have seemed weak, when compared to the Fascist system which portrayed itself as strong, and purposeful. Mussolini was confirmed in his belief that the supposed superpowers of Europe (England and France) lacked political will to resist Fascism when Italy invaded Ethiopia.